Posts Tagged With: Chiroptera

Could Bats be the Pharmacopoeia of the Future?


This is some of the research that contributed to the recently released Darwin’s Paradox: An international science mystery Bats have a major role in this books, also the people who try to protect them when they become a target of fearful people during the pandemic.

Could Bats be the Pharmacopoeia of the Future?

Bats have long been considered a threat to humans, but it might be time for that to change.

Of the almost 5,000 mammal species, about 20% are bats, chiroptera (KIE-ROP-TER-A) to be scientific. There are more bats species than any other order except rodents, and they inhabit every continent except Antarctica. Bats are everywhere, and they’re nocturnal, and they fly. What could be scarier than 1,000 species of bats flying into your nightmares?


How about over 3,000 species of viruses? The International Committee of Taxonomy of Viruses has identified over 3,000 virus species. Unfortunately, a large number of the viruses that are dangerous to people spend their vacations with bats. The list of viruses that are hosted by bats is both long and scary: hepaciviruses, pegiviruses, influenza A virus, hantavirus, paramyxoviruses, and of course lyssaviruses which include rabies.

Besides the viral threat, bats are vampires, as every school child can tell you. NOT! Only 3% of the bat species are vampires, and those are isolated to south and central America.

Recall the major pandemics (Black Plague, Spanish Flu, HIV/AIDS)? All caused by viruses. People die from viruses. Bats host viruses. Bats and Rats … maybe we’d be better off if we killed them all?

This has been the myth, legend, and superstition for millennia. With modern science, it’s time to reconsider.

Science is now asking the question, “Why do viruses that infect and kill humans and other mammals exist benignly in bats?”

If scientists can answer this question, find what protects the bats, we might be able to prevent future pandemics and even cure the common cold.

Chiroptera differ from other mammals in several ways. First, bats reached their current evolutionary point over 33.5 million years ago, while other mammals continued to evolve. Felines didn’t even appear until about 25 million years ago, and people, homo sapiens sapiens, didn’t show up until a few hundred thousand years ago.


This might explain why bats are better at dealing with viruses. Some scientists suggest that given 30 million years bats had time to evolve better defenses than we could in a few hundred thousand. Bats also had strong evolutionary pressures since they live in large, dense colonies – ideal for spreading viral infections. This is very different from primates which evolved in small isolated groups.

Others suggest that it’s just a numbers game. Given a thousand species of bats, to our one, they had a better chance to get lucky. This is supported by the rodents which have even more species and also host lots of viruses.

The third line of investigation is the high metabolism required for flight. This, combined with the observation that bats don’t seem to get cancer, leads to the hypothesis that their DNA repair mechanisms work faster and better.

This third hypothesis brings up another bat anomaly: not only are they more resistant to viral diseases, but they also live longer than expected. Are these two related? Maybe?


Regardless, the denizens of Chiroptera have antiviral secrets that we need and science is working to find them. Today more scientists study the biology of bats, and more bats are getting their DNA sequenced. Perhaps soon we will live longer and healthier because of those scary, night flying, echolocating bats.


Categories: Bats, Viruses | Tags: , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

#Bat Wings #Chiroptera /|\^o^/|\ (#Science #Biology #Anatomy #Evolution)

(Fruit Bat)PikiWiki_Israel_11327_Wildlife_and_Plants_of_Israel-Bat-003

This is some of the research that contributed to the recently released Darwin’s Paradox: An international science mystery Bats have a major role in this books, also the people who try to protect them when they become a target of fearful people during the pandemic.

In mammals, teeth provide quick and easy information as to diet, and an endless source of argument as to whether homo sapiens sapiens (that’s you) are carnivores or herbivores. Of course, the answer to this argument is that we are omnivores.


Sharp, pointed teeth indicate a carnivorous diet. In fact, most felines are obligate carnivores, so putting you pet cat on a vegan diet will kill it.


Flat, grinding teeth indicate a plant based diet. This horse is a typical herbivore and loves a vegan diet.


Often examining isolated characteristics can tell a lot about an animal’s environment, diet, and place in the food chain. Darwin famously famously supported his case for evolution be cataloging the beaks of finches.


In the case of bats, wings provide instant information about environment, diet, and prey. Most bats are designed on the model of jet fighter for maneuverability. They use this to avoid obstacles when flying inside caves or through trees.

They also, like fighter jets, use sonar (radar) and agility to track and capture flying targets. These bats have relatively short wings. The same can be seen in birds that live in forest and jungle environments.


Alternately wings might be long. Relative large wings optimize for distance flying.

Fruit bats have long wings appropriate for their stationary targets (fruit) and look more like cargo transports or bombers. Carrion birds like vultures and condors also follow this model.

So short, stubby wings: think jet fighter, and large, long wings think bombers. Evolution is warfare, and the right equipment in the right situation is victorious.


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#Evolution of #Flight by #Chiroptera (aka #Bats)


This is some of the research that contributed to the recently released Darwin’s Paradox: An international science mystery Bats have a major role in this books, also the people who try to protect them when they become a target of fearful people during the pandemic.

An important principle of evolution is that evolution does not plan. There is no such thing as a species evolving in a direction that is not superior to the status quo just to be better prepared for some eventual benefit later.

This is important when thinking about flight, or any evolutionary change that makes use of several systems (such as the skeletal system, cardiovascular system, and the respiratory system), or which requires significant anatomical modifications. Both of these are true for flight.


While speciation, based on size and color (canis and felis) or beaks (Darwin’s finches), can be understood by a few, small genetic changes, the evolution of flight is more complex. However, in spite of the complexity, flight has evolved at least four independent times: insects, pterosaurs, bats, and birds.


Flight requires both the development of wings and changes to cardiorespiratory systems to support the short-term effort required for aerial takeoff.

Now, from the no planning principle, we know that in the millennia before flight is achieved, the intermediate changes must be an improvement at every step of the way. In the case of flight, there are two major theories for an evolutionary path to flight.


The first path to flight (ground up) assumes an animal that lives on the ground and evolves to run faster building up their cadriorespiratory endurance and uses their hands to catch prey expanding the area of their hands. Over time this animal benefits from hopping and gliding and finally true flight. This seems to be a good theory for birds.


The second path to flight (height down) assumes an arboreal animal that lives in the trees and first jumps down on prey, and eventually glides, and finally develops true flight. This seems to be a good theory for pterosaurs.

In the case of chiroptera (bats), it could have gone either way. There are bats that run along the ground suggesting ground up and those that climb trees suggesting height down.

In either case, bats have successfully populated all continents except Antarctica. They represent 20% of all mammal species, second only to rodents.


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Thinking of Zebras #Rabies #Bats #Chiroptera #Medical


This is some of the research that contributed to the recently released Darwin’s Paradox: An international science mystery When the pandemic strikes, the medical doctors are forced to look for more and more unlikely causes.

New medical students are regularly warned that when they hear hoof beats, they should think of horses, not zebras. Before they get their clinical experiences, new doctors treat all diseases as equally probable. After they become experienced, they naturally think of horses (the common causes) when they hear hoof beats (common symptoms).

This leads to an opposite problem. Experienced doctors have a blind spot when the hoof beats actually foretell zebras (a rare disease).

Consider this case from Canadian Journal of Infectious Disease, Volume 13, Number 2, March/April 2002.

A nine-year-old boy had upper arm pain and a slight fever. In a few days the pain extended down to his wrist and up to his shoulder and neck. The area was tender to touch and prevented him from sleeping. The next day he had tremors and was hospitalized.

This was followed by sore throat, difficulty swallowing, and intense itching. The doctors considered allergies and treated his with diphenhydramine (an antihistamine) which had little effect.

The tremors and spasms got worse, and the patient had difficulty speaking. Knee-jerk reflexes were normal, but the doctor considered epilepsy and ordered an electroencephalogram. This showed a slowing of brain activity, but not epilepsy.

The patient next developed aerophobia (fear of air blown on them) and hydrophobia (inability to drink water). This was accompanied by a rash, transient hallucinations, and intense itching.

The following day brought severe tremors of the face and all limbs, drooling, priapism, and the feeling of suffocation. At this point the doctors presumed that the patient had rabies.

Nine days later, “14 days after the onset of his initial symptoms, the patient presented a clinical picture compatible with brain death, was extubated and died.”

This is an example of how difficult it is to diagnose rabies, absent a reported bite.


Here is another case from CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Volume 60, Number 14, April 15, 2011.

“The patient reportedly had awakened with a bat on his arm 9 months earlier, but had not sought medical evaluation. He went to a local emergency department (ED) on October 30 and soon after was hospitalized; he died 12 days later.”

Initially he was treated by a chiropractor for pain and numbness of his left hand and arm, lower neck and upper back. The chiropractic treatment relieved the back pain, but the arm numbness and tingling got worst.

At the hospital, the patient did not have a fever, blood pressure was normal, blood count and routine chemistries were normal. Strength and sensation were normal. The only symptoms were weakness of the left arm, elevated white blood cell counts, and elevated glucose. A CT scan also revealed some anomalies.

Most concerning, the patient had such difficulty breathing that he was put on ventilation.

AIDP and Guillain-Barre syndrome were the chief diagnoses considered at this point. MRI and entectromyography pointed to AIDP and treatment began.

A few days later, with the patient not improving, CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) analysis lead the staff to switch the diagnosis to meningoencephalitis. This treatment was also not effective.

At that point, “on November 4, the infectious disease physician asked the patient’s wife about any animal exposure history. … The wife had no knowledge of any recent animal bites. …
On November 8, another relative recounted an incident that had occurred approximately 9 months before onset of illness. The patient had told the relative about waking one night to a bat crawling on his arm. …
On November 11, the patient’s family elected to withdraw life support, and the patient died shortly afterward.”


Here is a third case from CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Volume 59, Number 13, April 9, 2010.

When an apparently healthy man visited a clinic with fever and a cough, the clinician diagnosed bronchitis and prescribed antibiotics.

By the follow-up, the patient now had fever, chills, chest pains and left arm numbness. An electrocardiogram did not indicate a heart attack. The diagnosis was musculoskeletal pain and the patient was prescribed pain killers and muscle relaxants at this time.

Next visit the patient was agitated and restless, which was presumed to be a side-effect of the muscle relaxants. Hospital observation was recommended, but the patient went home.

The next day, the patient presented with twitches, high heart rate, low blood pressure, and fever. The doctor now considered sepsis and the patient was hospitalized.

The patient was intubated and tested extensively. The patient continued to deteriorate with low heart rate, low blood pressure, muscle wasting, and kidney failure requiring dialysis.

Two weeks after the initial clinic visit, rabies were considered. The patient died the next day.


Sometimes those hoof beats are zebras.


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Best animal mother. Bats deserve your respect.


Over twenty percent of all mammal species are of the order Chiroptera, aka Bats. They live everywhere except Antarctica, and perform important tasks such control of insects and pollination. Yet people seem to hate them, and for so many reasons.

1. Their name? Chiroptera (kai-rop-ter-uh) is hard to pronounce. Just like food ingredients that some avoid because they can’t pronounce them, Chiropteras fall prey to this prejudice. How silly is this? Chiroptera means hand-wing. What could be cuter?

2. Vampire bats? Out of over 1200 species of bats, there are just three species of vampire bats, and they all live in Central and South America. Less than 10% of the world’s population lives anywhere close these bats, and they rarely prey on humans anyway. Forget the vampire thing.

3. Batman? Isn’t this a plus?

4. Disease? Also every news story about rabies, mentions bats. Even in places without rabies, bats are known as disease carriers. In Australia, famously rabies free, bats harbor Hendra Virus (HeV), Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV), Menangle virus, Tioman virus, and Nipah virus. However lots of other mammals host zoonotic diseases (remember swine flu and bird flu). The taxoplasmosis risks to pregnant women from cats doesn’t do any to harm their supremacy in the Internet cute hierarchy.

5. Nocturnal? Could it be that people just dislike/fear nocturnal animals. That is unless they are cats (cute cats again), or owls, or koalas, or tree frogs, or fireflies, even large cats that would be happy to have you for lunch.

We should all learn so love bats, so for Mother’s Day, let’s look at bat mothers.

Being a bat mother is a serious challenge. First consider that a bat mom must fly while she is pregnant. Bat moms don’t take the easy way out of this one like birds with their tiny eggs and short gestations, or other mammals with small babies. Bat pups can weigh up to 25% of mom’s weight with a 6 month gestation. Assuming people could fly, imagine flying with a 30 pound near-term fetus. That alone is enough to celebrate Mother’s Day for Bats.

The mother bat normally limits herself to one pup at a time, just once a year. She has strategies to make sure the little bundle of joy has the best chances by giving birth when food is most abundant. This is done without help from the males, some of whom have the largest testicles, up to 8% of body weight as an indication of their priorities. Guys, your turn. Imagine 12 pound balls.

Bat mothers side-track the sperm to save it until the optimum time, or if they do get pregnant, they can suspend the development until the right time. These caring mother’s are prepared to give their children the best regardless of what the guys might be thinking. Happy Bat Mother’s Day, but maybe we’ll skip Father’s Day for the furry little flyers.

Once this bat child is born, it must be nursed. How long? It is that flying thing again. Bats can’t fly until they are adults. Mom nurses the little darling until it is adult size, again without any help from those men with the big balls and small brains. (That is a separate story, but science has discovered that testicle size and brain size are inversely correlated).

So Happy Mother’s Day to all the bats, most dedicated mother’s of the animal world. Next time someone says something bad about bats, we can defend them as dedicated, loving mothers.

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